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Musical Instruments of Wandering Minstrels

India boasts of an ancient and rich musical tradition. A study of musical texts, paintings and sculptures from prehistoric times to the present day would reveal the continuity of the musical traditions of India. Musical instruments appear in the drawings and paintings (dating back to the Mesolithic era) of Bhimbetka rock shelters which is a World Heritage Site. Evidence of dance and music has been found in the excavations of the Harappan Civilization too.
Music combines vocal or instrumental sounds for emotional expression. Musical instruments represent music in a tangible form. A study of musical instruments helps in tracing the evolution of music and also explains many aspects of the culture of the group of people using these instruments. In the Natya Shastra, compiled by Bharata Muni, musical instruments have been divided into four main categories on the basis of how sound is produced: (i) The Tata Vadya or Chordophones - Stringed instruments; (ii) The Sushira Vadya or Aerophones -W…

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India - II

UNESCO World Heritage Convention which was established in 1972, recognised various sites of cultural and natural importance around the world. After the latest addition to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. India now has 38 World Heritage Sites and that makes India the country with the 6th largest number of World Heritage Sites in the world.


On a gentle slope In the foothills of the Himalayas where wooded hills give way to alluvial grasslands and tropical forests, lies the Manes Wildlife Sanctuary. The sanctuary was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. Manes Wildlife Sanctuary is horns to rare and endangered wildlife species such as Pygmy Hog, Golden Langur, Hispid Hare and the Assam Roofed Turtle.


Located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, the Great Himalayan National Park is one of India's prominent national parks. The National Park was established in 1984 and is spread over an area of 1,171 sq km at an altitu…

Industrial City - Jamshedpur

When Lord Chelmsford renamed the small village called Sakchi in 1919, little did he realise that he was creating an exemplary word-class city that even today sets the pace for sustainable urban development. Jamshedpur completes 100 years since its renaming and it continues to be recognised as the place where India's first steel plant was set up. The founder, Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata, dreamt of an industrialised and prosperous India. Five years before the site of the steel plant was finally located, he wrote to his son Dorab of what his dream city should look like. This is what he envisioned:

Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick-growing variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens. Reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu temples, Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches.
- Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata

Spread over 64 sq km, the city lies on the southern edge of Jharkhand in the Chhota…

The Rajputana Rifles

4th Battalion (Outram's) The Rajputana Rifles is one of the oldest infantry battalions of the Indian Army. The Battalion completes 200 years of its raising in 2020 which is a rare milestone for the reason that ever since its raising, the Battalion has never been disbanded or discontinued.

The Battalion was raised on 26'h May, 1820, from the brave men who fought the Battle of Kirkee in November, 1817, as the First Battalion of the 12th Regiment of the East India Company Native Army. In the reorganization in 1903, the Battalion donned the name of its most distinguished officer, Sir James Outram and was designated the 123rd Outram's Rifles. Post-independence, the Battalion was renamed the 4th Battalion (Outram's) The Rajputana Rifles.

Before independence, the Battalion fought in wars in Persia, Burma, Afghanistan, Palestine and parts of North Africa. It actively participated in both World Wars. The enviable award tally of the Battalion includes two Victoria Crosses, the …

Constitution of India

Constitution Day also known as 'Samvidhan Divas', is celebrated in our country on 26th November every year to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India. On 26th November, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India, which came into effect from 26th January, 1950. On 19th November, 2015, the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment notified the decision of Government of India to celebrate the 26th day of November every year as 'Constitution Day' to promote among citizens, the values enshrined in our Constitution.

26th November, 2019 marked the 70th anniversary of the adoption of the Constitution of India by the Constituent Assembly. Beginning 26th November, 2019, year-long nationwide activities on Constitution Day were launched with the objective of publicizing the glorious and rich composite culture and diversity of our nation and creating awareness of Fundamental Duties as enshrined in the Constitution of India. Horri…

International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) came into existence in 1919. Over the course of 100 years, the ILO has witnessed significant developments and scaled new heights in their mandate to promote welfare of the workers. The ILO is the only tripartite United Nations Agency that brings together Governments, employers and workers of 187 Member States to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes to promote decent work for all women and men and to provide social protection to workers. India is a founder member of the ILO and has a rich legacy of upholding the ILO's objectives and spirit. India's well-established Tripartite mechanisms that are at the heart of the ILO's consultative process (where adequate representation is given to Workers' / Employers' and the Government) have resulted in a robust and dynamic system of deliberative process for labour policy formulation.

The main aims of the ILO are to promote rights at work, encourage decent emp…

Indian Fashions

Fashion design is a form of art dedicated to the creation of clothing and other lifestyle accessories through the application of design aesthetics. Fashion designers conduct research on fashion trends and interpret them for their clientele. They attempt to design clothes that are functional as well as aesthetically appealing. They consider who is likely to wear the garment and the occasion on which it is to be worn while designing it. Clothes worn for everyday wearfall within a narrow range of styles whereas clothes for special occasions demand greater attention to the cut and styling. Some garments are made specifically for an individual as in the case of 'haute couture` or bespoke tailoring.

Haute couture is high-end fashion that is constructed by hand from start to finish, made from high-quality, expensive, often unusual fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable sewers often using time consuming, hand-executed techniques. …